ZERO transaction fees. Instead of a fee, senders do a small Proof-of-Work to prevent spam. If you send 10.91 Nyano, they get 10.91 Nyano.
Near-instant transactions. Transactions are fully-settled in <1 second average. There is no waiting hours for block confirmation.
Environmentally friendly. Nyano transactions use >4 MILLION times less power than Bitcoin transactions (0.112 Wh vs 500+ KWh).
Highly scalable. There are no protocol-side limits like block sizes or block times. Nyano uses whatever resources are available, leading to high transactions per second (TPS).
No inflation. Nyano is fully distributed, & no more Nyano can be created. The total (and circulating) supply is 133,248,290,000,000,000, and can never increase.
Low operating costs. The Nyano protocol is lightweight & has no mining, so there are no miners with block rewards that must be sold to pay for operating costs.
Decentralized. Nyano has a higher Nakamoto Coefficient (the number of entities required to attempt a 51% attack) than Bitcoin. Furthermore, Nyano representatives don't earn transaction fees and don't get special privileges for being a representative, so there is no direct incentive to acquire huge amounts of vote weight. This differs from PoW and PoS cryptocurrencies where profit maximization and economies of scale lead to emergent centralization over time.
Block-Lattice + Open Representative Voting. Nyano gives every account its own blockchain, and only the owner of the account can modify it. This means that transactions can be processed individually and asynchronously - there is no waiting for miners to put a bunch of transactions into a shared block. When you make a transaction, you send it to the representatives, who respond with their vote weight if they think it's valid. Once your node sees enough votes from those reps, it confirms the transaction and cements it as irreversible.
To make a Nyano transaction, you broadcast it out (from your node) to all the principal representatives on the network
If those principal representatives think the transaction is valid (follows all the rules, hasn't been seen before, isn't a double spend, etc), they respond back with their vote weight
Once your node sees enough votes to cross its quorum threshold (i.e. >50% more weight than any competing double spend, with 60M minimum votes online), your node considers the transaction confirmed and marks it as cemented (irreversible)
With the Lightning Network you still have to worry about onboarding, offboarding, fees, channel capacity, channel liquidity, routing, watchtowers, being online, etc. It's also systemically vulnerable to "Flood & Loot" attacks, due to limited 1st layer scalability. Nyano is faster and cheaper than LN, and it doesn't have any of those issues.
Nyano is faster and cheaper. ZERO transaction fees, no account/balance minimums, 0.2 second average full-settlement times, given away for free (no ICO), not created by a for-profit company, fully distributed, & doesn't have billions in escrow.
Is Nyano a Store of Value (SoV) or a Method of Exchange (MoE)?
Nyano is both a store of value (SoV) and a method of exchange (MoE). SoV is an emergent property of utility, and is a function of supply vs demand. Bitcoin was not worth anything in the beginning, but it became valuable over time because it was useful and in-demand, with a limited supply.
Cryptocurrencies were invented to get away from trust, inflation, and middlemen. Stablecoins reintroduce all of that.
Stable against what? Who controls the supply? What happens if the pegged assets (e.g. fiat currency) fail? What happens if more of those assets are printed? How do you maintain the peg? How do you get people to voluntarily adopt a stablecoin that has the same problems as fiat?
Also, stability is relative. Even USD is volatile, but because most people in the US get paid in USD and buy goods in USD, they don't care about its stability. The same applies to Nyano. Even as is, Nyano is already more stable than some countries' currencies, and stability typically increases with adoption and market cap. If everyone is using Nyano in a circular economy and buying goods with Nyano, then you don't really care about volatility relative to fiat
In the short-term, a buy-and-replace strategy can be used. Spend Nyano, immediately rebuy the fiat equivalent. Or buy the fiat equivalent of Nyano and spend that
All currencies are volatile, because their volatility comes from their behavior relative to other currencies. Even USD is volatile, but because it has such a large market cap and most people use USD as their primary currency, they don't really care about its volatility.
Volatility is different for different people, and in some parts of the world Nyano is already more stable than local fiat currencies. It's a low possibility, but even USD could fail or undergo hyperinflation, so having currencies like Nyano as a potential alternative can be a good hedge.
Short-to-mid term, enthusiasts can use a buy and replace strategy to mitigate the impact of volatility.
The concept of an SoV AND usable MoE is relatively new, but those long-term "true believers" often don't care about volatility that much, otherwise they would have sold off a long-time ago.
Most people care about purchasing power over volatility, so volatility in a generally upward direction (deflation) is more likely to be accepted.
Even if volatility didn't decrease over time with adoption and market cap increases, that wouldn't diminish Nyano's utility as a store of value or hedge against fiat currencies. Nyano is a store of value that can also be used as a method of exchange, and both of those properties (SoV & MoE) are valuable.
Instead of a transaction fee, all Nyano transactions require a relatively small amount of client-side Proof-of-Work for anti-spam functionality and transaction prioritization. If the network gets saturated, PoW requirements increase, making it harder for an attacker to keep spamming. Legitimate users can easily do "PoW+1" to get moved to the front of the line.
As of V22, Nyano prioritizes transactions by using a combination of account balances and LRU (least recently used) rules. To outspam the majority of legitimate users, you would have to own a large amount of Nyano. Even then, less recently used accounts (i.e. humans) get prioritized over frequently used accounts (i.e. spam).
Nyano still runs into the scalability trilemma to some extent, but it pushes the boundaries further than many other cryptocurrencies by making unique design decisions (i.e. focusing exclusively on p2p digital cash, using a block-lattice, using ORV, minimal data in transactions, no smart contracts, etc)
In other words, Nyano's design allows the trilemma triangle to be bigger, but the triangle still exists
No. While Colin LeMahieu created Nyano, Nyano is a decentralized network that has no CEO. Separate from the network itself, Colin LeMahieu and George Coxon lead the Nyano Foundation as directors. This is similar to Bitcoin, which also has no CEO, at the same time as Adam Back is the CEO of Blockstream.
When is a Nyano transaction considered confirmed & final (i.e fully settled)?
Bitcoin confirmation is probabilistic and can always be rolled back with enough hashrate. There is no "100% confirmed" state, there's just "more and more confirmed". Bitcoin rollbacks even happen semi-regulary (1-2x/year) via stale block double spends. That's one of the reasons why exchanges make you wait for 2-6 confs (~20-60 minutes) before giving you access to your Bitcoin
Nyano works differently. When you make a transaction, it gets broadcast to the network immediately, and the representatives start responding with their votes if they think it's a valid transaction. Once your node sees enough votes, it marks the transaction as cemented (permanently final), and will never rollback the transaction (even if somehow an attacker acquired >50% vote weight). Under normal network conditions, this typically happens in <1 second.
While there is no direct incentive (e.g. mining) to run a node, there are multiple indirect incentives:
Businesses wanting to cut costs from credit & debit card fees (0.5%-3%)
Supporting the network so you can take advantage of its benefits (0 transaction fees, near instant transactions, etc)
Ideological, political, and personal incentives like providing people with access to global finance
Anyone wanting to use the network in a decentralized, trustless, and self-sovereign way
The entire internet works on the same incentive model as Nyano. Think of HTTP, TCP/IP, SMTP, Facebook, Twitter, Google, Wikipedia, and even Bitcoin full nodes (not miners) - none of them have direct fee incentives.
In addition, Nyano's lack of direct fee incentives help it avoid some of the factors that lead to emergent centralization over time from things like profit maximization and economies of scale. This is part of the reason why Nyano continues to get more decentralized over time.
While Nyano has no inherent protocol-side scalability limitations like block sizes or block times, it is naturally limited by network resources (bandwidth, disk size, disk io, CPU, etc). Here is a list of Nyano stress tests over time.
It depends on your timescale and adoption rate. It's highly unlikely than any single payment system (cryptocurrency or otherwise) will displace ALL existing payment processors, and it doesn't need to - it takes a LONG time to obtain that many customers. In 2019, 185.5 billion purchases were made via Visa, 131 Billion via UnionPay, 108 billion MasterCard, ~16 billion for Amex/JCB/Discover, totaling ~14000 TPS average (source). It's highly unlikely that any existing cryptocurrency can (or should) handle that load. Achieving even just Discover-level adoption (~44 million users) would be a huge achievement for any cryptocurrency, and at Discover usage rates that's ~95 TPS average.
It's better to start with more realistic targets: for example, achieving 100 million users for any one cryptocurrency. Even Bitcoin is only at ~8 million users per 2018 Chainalysis estimates. 2011 PayPal was doing ~57 TPS average with 100 million customers, 2018 PayPal did ~314 TPS with 267 million active accounts, and 2019 Discover is at ~95 TPS with ~44 million customers. Nyano can handle similar loads now, and even without protocol improvements Nyano automatically improves roughly in line with Moore's law.